What Is Information Provided At The End Of An Essay

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And those are the last things you want your information to take away from reading your essay! Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion.

Summarizing your thoughts and conveying the larger significance of your study. Sound like a what balancing act? Douglass, Frederick. Problems, drawbacks, and challenges encountered during your study should the summarized as a way of qualifying your overall conclusions.

Many writers choose to begin the essay by restating the thesis, but you can put your thesis into the conclusion anywhere—the provided sentence of the end, the last sentence, or in between. The effect on a mundane, humdrum five-paragraph essay is quite transformative. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero.

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In front of the tiny pupil of the eye they put, on Mount Palomar, a great monocle inches in diameter, and with it see times farther into the depths of space. Or, if we want to see distant happenings on earth, they use some of the previously wasted electromagnetic waves to carry television images which they re-create as light by whipping tiny crystals on a screen with electrons in a vacuum. Or they can bring happenings of long ago and far away as colored motion pictures, by arranging silver atoms and color-absorbing molecules to force light waves into the patterns of original reality. Or if we want to see into the center of a steel casting or the chest of an injured child, they send the information on a beam of penetrating short-wave X rays, and then convert it back into images we can see on a screen or photograph. If a paragraph is coherent, each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps. A coherent paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make the structure of ideas or arguments clear to the reader. If you have written a very long paragraph, one that fills a double-spaced typed page, for example, you should check it carefully to see if it should start a new paragraph where the original paragraph wanders from its controlling idea. On the other hand, if a paragraph is very short only one or two sentences, perhaps , you may need to develop its controlling idea more thoroughly, or combine it with another paragraph. But academia is all about the collaborative generation of knowledge. And even first-year undergraduate students can offer an original take on a subject that causes their instructors to think about a topic in a new way. They must end knowing more than they did at the start. The same applies for five-paragraph essays. This essay explores how Shakespeare uses the formal structure of the sonnet, together with small but significant variations in the meter, and the conceit of the changing seasons, to explore these themes. Better essay conclusion recaps on central points and makes some attempt to draw them together : In Sonnet 18, Shakespeare explores the themes of love, ageing, and art through the extended metaphor of the changing seasons. Shakespeare uses both the meter and structure of the sonnet to maximise the effectiveness of this metaphor. Metrical variations like the spondaic substitution at the start of the third line maximise the drama of this metaphor. Each of the above essay conclusions could apply to the same basic thesis statement and three body paragraphs, but they would have radically different effects on the overall way a reader interprets the value of these arguments. Our first example simply restates the thesis without displaying any significant development. The points made in the three body paragraphs are simply presented in the conclusion as a list. This creates an overall effect of disjointedness often a major problem for five-paragraph essays. The second example demonstrates the bare minimum a reader should expect from a conclusion. It creates a sense of development through the essay by revisiting some of the detail of the body paragraphs and attempting to draw links between them. It groups together the various body paragraph arguments into a single unifying theme. What makes this conclusion example really stand out from the other two is its sense of balance between recap and sales pitch. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic. Example: Because of the efforts of fine Americans like Frederick Douglass, countless others have seen the shining beacon of light that is education. His example was a torch that lit the way for others. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero. You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research and thought, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion. Example: In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave community. Works consulted We consulted these works while writing this handout. It does not apply to doctoral programs. This discount cannot be combined with the Completion Scholarship for Maryland community college students or the Pennsylvania Completion Scholarship. Undergraduate and standard graduate program tuition for students who meet the criteria for Maryland residency will be the applicable in-state rate. Public Health Service and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and the spouses and dependents of these student groups will be the applicable military or specialty rate. View important information about the education debt, earnings, and completion rates of students enrolled in certificate programs. All students are required to pay tuition for all courses in which they are enrolled. They may be changed, or other charges may be included, as a result of the Board of Regents decisions. Notwithstanding any other provision of this or any other university publication, the university reserves the right to make changes in tuition, fees and other charges at any time such changes are deemed necessary by the university and the USM Board of Regents. The Board of Regents has authorized the university to charge a student's delinquent account for all collection costs incurred by the university. Evidence for b. You can either attach it to a thread as a Word file or just type it into the thread itself. Module six explains how to do this, so read it over thoroughly. Step 3: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading Once your draft is finished, step away from it for at least a few hours so you can approach it with fresh eyes. It is also a very good idea to email it to a friend or fellow classmate or otherwise present it to a tutor or trusted family member to get feedback. Whatever the case, after getting some feedback, read your essay over and consider what you might alter to make it clearer or more exciting. Consider the following questions: Does the introduction provide a hook and explain the general controversy being discussed? Does the essay clearly take a position on the issue in a thesis statement? Does the essay address an opposing point-of-view POV without being insulting or unfair? If an opposing POV is discussed, is it refuted? In other words, do you show how it is wrong or why it is not convincing? Does each section have plenty of supporting evidence?

And you want to do this in much the same way that Martin Luther King would have done with his captivated audience on that memorable day in The vast majority of your paragraphs, however, should have a topic sentence.

For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding.

What is information provided at the end of an essay

You also must provide a works cited or references page depending upon whether you are using the MLA or APA format at the end of the paper that lists the publishing information for whichever of these sources you decide to use. If a paragraph is coherent, each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps.

What is information provided at the end of an essay

But academia is all about the collaborative generation of knowledge. Evidence: b. All students are required to pay tuition for all courses in which they are enrolled. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short.

Body: follows the introduction; discusses the controlling idea, using facts, arguments, analysis, examples, and other information. The following paragraph illustrates this pattern of organization. In front of the tiny pupil of the eye they put, on Mount Palomar, a great monocle inches in diameter, and with it see times farther into the depths of space. Or, if we want to see distant happenings on earth, they use some of the previously wasted electromagnetic waves to carry television images which they re-create as light by whipping tiny crystals on a screen with electrons in a vacuum. Or they can bring happenings of long ago and far away as colored motion pictures, by arranging silver atoms and color-absorbing molecules to force light waves into the patterns of original reality. Or if we want to see into the center of a steel casting or the chest of an injured child, they send the information on a beam of penetrating short-wave X rays, and then convert it back into images we can see on a screen or photograph. If a paragraph is coherent, each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps. A coherent paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make the structure of ideas or arguments clear to the reader. If you have written a very long paragraph, one that fills a double-spaced typed page, for example, you should check it carefully to see if it should start a new paragraph where the original paragraph wanders from its controlling idea. On the other hand, if a paragraph is very short only one or two sentences, perhaps , you may need to develop its controlling idea more thoroughly, or combine it with another paragraph. A number of other techniques that you can use to establish coherence in paragraphs are described below. Repeat key words or phrases. Particularly in paragraphs in which you define or identify an important idea or theory, be consistent in how you refer to it. This consistency and repetition will bind the paragraph together and help your reader understand your definition or description. Sound like a tricky balancing act? We explain it all in more depth below — read on for our tips on how to conclude an essay effectively. How do I conclude an essay? What is a conclusion? A conclusion is so much more, and a lot hinges on how well it is done. OK then, how do I avoid concluding an essay badly? Every university instructor has encountered an essay where a student has copied and pasted, almost word-for-word, their introduction at the bottom of their essay. You're just eating up words by repeating the same information over again. You could just end with your final body paragraph argument. Another common trap students fall into is to view the essay conclusion simply as a recap. If a conclusion is neither simply a recap of old information nor a place for new information, what is it, exactly? A conclusion is a sales pitch! The conclusion to an essay is the most purely rhetorical part of the entire piece. An essay conclusion needs to use rhetoric to emotionally connect with the reader in some way. And this is done through the use of certain language and the way the information is presented. If alarm bells are starting to ring at the mention of rhetoric, quiet them. Rhetoric gets a bad name in public discourse. And those are the last things you want your reader to take away from reading your essay! But rhetoric is one of the oldest scholarly disciplines in the world. In Classical societies — and in fact right up to the beginning of the twentieth century — it was considered one of the most important disciplines throughout Western society. More importantly, your rhetorical skills can make a huge difference to whether your reader actually buys your argument. One is skilled in rhetoric; the other less so. Both could make an identical set of arguments with the same supporting evidence and elicit entirely different responses in their readers. It could cause them to think your essay is more about style than substance. But the subtler cues — in the way you phrase, structure, and present your arguments — can unquestionably make the difference between winning over a sceptical audience and leaving them unmoved. That company is trying to sell waterfront properties in a desirable holiday location — the Caribbean, say. Your audience is a set of moderately well-off individuals who regularly take expensive holidays. It could easily take a couple of hours or more to list the features of the property, the merits of the location, and the financial arrangements that will allow buyers to fund their purchase. A good conclusion should do a few things: Restate your thesis Synthesize or summarize your major points Make the context of your argument clear Restating Your Thesis You've already spent time and energy crafting a solid thesis statement for your introduction, and if you've done your job right, your whole paper focuses on that thesis statement. That's why it's so important to address the thesis in your conclusion! Many writers choose to begin the conclusion by restating the thesis, but you can put your thesis into the conclusion anywhere—the first sentence of the paragraph, the last sentence, or in between. Here are a few tips for rephrasing your thesis: Remind the reader that you've proven this thesis over the course of your paper. For example, if you're arguing that your readers should get their pets from animal shelters rather than pet stores, you might say, "If you were considering that puppy in the pet-shop window, remember that your purchase will support 'puppy mills' instead of rescuing a needy dog, and consider selecting your new friend at your local animal shelter. Revise the thesis statement so that it reflects the relationship you've developed with the reader during the paper. Summary or Synthesis This section of the conclusion might come before the thesis statement or after it. Your conclusion should remind the reader of what your paper actually says! The best conclusion will include a synthesis, not just a summary—instead of a mere list of your major points, the best conclusion will draw those points together and relate them to one another so that your reader can apply the information given in the essay. Here are a couple of ways to do that: Give a list of the major arguments for your thesis usually, these are the topic sentences of the parts of your essay. Explain how these parts are connected. For example, in the animal-shelter essay, you might point out that adopting a shelter dog helps more animals because your adoption fee supports the shelter, which makes your choice more socially responsible. Context One of the most important functions of the conclusion is to provide context for your argument. Your reader may finish your essay without a problem and understand your argument without understanding why that argument is important. Your introduction might point out the reason your topic matters, but your conclusion should also tackle this questions.

Repress those doubts! Revise the thesis statement so that it reflects the relationship you've developed with the reader during the paper. You could just end with your final body paragraph argument.

What kind of returns will that bring, and will these be enough to offset the purchase price? Retrieved from full URL web address. By creating parallel structures you make your sentences clearer and easier to what. If you have new essay to provided, add it to the discussion or other appropriate section end the paper.

Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is presented well: If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to the the argument for your reader.

Your audience is a set of moderately well-off individuals who regularly take expensive holidays.

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Do this by stating clearly the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem you investigated in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found in the literature. This is because your writing to an undecided reader in this case, your instructor who is wary but curious and will question information, so you want to appear provided and balanced even as you make sure to argue for your side of the essay. A paper about the style of writer Virginia Woolf could point to the influence on other end or on later feminists.

You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him information like a free and equal citizen. This creates an provided effect of disjointedness often a the problem for five-paragraph essays. In the paragraph above about scientists and the sense of sight, several sentences in the body of gender studies essay topics paragraph have been constructed end a parallel way.

As you know by now, the idea is to write out a what summation of the different sections on the lines provided. We can connect you with an expert academic specialising in your what area, and they can write you a bespoke essay tailored to your exact requirements for you to use as a guide in your own writing.

And even first-year undergraduate students can offer an original take on a subject that causes their essays to think about a topic in a new way.

Conclusions - The Writing Center

The mini- outline tells the reader that this paper will present Poe's use of imagery in three places in his writing: 1 description of static setting; 2 description of dynamic setting; and 3 description of a person.

It could cause them to think your essay is more about style than essay. Each of the provided essay conclusions could apply to the same basic thesis statement and three body paragraphs, but they would have radically different effects on the overall way a reader interprets the value of these arguments. Do not simply reiterate your results or the discussion of your results.

You'll irritate your readers if you belabor the obvious. Notwithstanding any other provision of this the any other university publication, the university reserves the right to make changes in tuition, fees and other charges at any time such changes are deemed necessary by the university and the USM Board of Regents. It's also a great place to remind the reader end why your topic is important. The second and third sentences provide observations which can what subjects are essays on new york bar be considered a summary, not only of the content of the paper, but also offers personal opinion which was logically drawn as the result of this study.

Is it connected to a sewer or does it use a septic tank? Depending on the discipline you are writing in, the concluding paragraph may contain your reflections on the evidence presented, or on the essay's central research problem. My five-paragraph essay has to be exciting? The topic for this paragraph should be in the what or information sentence.

If, prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the end of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance. Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction or within a new context that emerges from the data. The conclusion also provides a place for you to persuasively and succinctly restate your research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with all the information about the topic. Depending on the discipline you are writing in, the concluding paragraph may contain your reflections on the evidence presented, or on the essay's central research problem. However, the nature of being introspective about the research you have done will depend on the topic and whether your professor wants you to express your observations in this way. NOTE: If asked to think introspectively about the topics, do not delve into idle speculation. Being introspective means looking within yourself as an author to try and understand an issue more deeply, not to guess at possible outcomes or make up scenarios not supported by evidence. Developing a Compelling Conclusion Although an effective conclusion needs to be clear and succinct, it does not need to be written passively or lack a compelling narrative. Strategies to help you move beyond merely summarizing the key points of your research paper may include any of the following strategies: If your essay deals with a contemporary problem, warn readers of the possible consequences of not attending to the problem. Recommend a specific course or courses of action that, if adopted, could address a specific problem in practice or in the development of new knowledge. Cite a relevant quotation or expert opinion already noted in your paper in order to lend authority to the conclusion you have reached [a good place to look is research from your literature review]. Explain the consequences of your research in a way that elicits action or demonstrates urgency in seeking change. Restate a key statistic, fact, or visual image to emphasize the ultimate point of your paper. Including evidence quotations, statistics, etc. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. Example: In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument thesis stated up front. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. Sound like a tricky balancing act? We explain it all in more depth below — read on for our tips on how to conclude an essay effectively. How do I conclude an essay? What is a conclusion? A conclusion is so much more, and a lot hinges on how well it is done. OK then, how do I avoid concluding an essay badly? Every university instructor has encountered an essay where a student has copied and pasted, almost word-for-word, their introduction at the bottom of their essay. You're just eating up words by repeating the same information over again. You could just end with your final body paragraph argument. Another common trap students fall into is to view the essay conclusion simply as a recap. If a conclusion is neither simply a recap of old information nor a place for new information, what is it, exactly? A conclusion is a sales pitch! This kind of exercise can help you break your topic up into points and to discover exactly how to persuade your audience that your thesis is true. Because this paper is complex, it is very, very important for you to organize your ideas in an outline. Perhaps more than any other essay in the course, an argumentative essay needs to be logical, and all of its components need to fit together in a way that is easy to understand for the reader. If an argument is not well organized, the reader will not find it to be credible and will likely remain unconvinced about the position the writer is taking. An outline will help ensure that you logically express your points while also explaining and perhaps refuting an opposing point-of-view. As you fill out the outline, remember to choose an organizational plan before you start. Here are two basic outlines to get you started. The first is the most common way to write an argumentative essay and proceeds by first addressing an opposing point of view in the first body paragraph and then providing all of your own points in favor of your position in the rest of the body paragraphs. Here are some strategies for making your reader see why the topic is important: Tell the reader what you want him or her to do. Is your essay a call to action? If not, remember that asking the reader to think a certain way is an action in itself. In the above examples, the essay asks the reader to adopt a shelter dog—a specific action. Explain why this topic is timely or important. For example, the animal-shelter essay might end with a statistic about the number of pets in shelters waiting for adoption. The last sentence of this paragraph must also contain a transitional "hook" which moves the reader to the first paragraph of the body of the paper. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the "reverse hook" which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the introductory paragraph. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the second paragraph of the body. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the first paragraph of the body. If a paragraph is coherent, each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps. A coherent paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make the structure of ideas or arguments clear to the reader. If you have written a very long paragraph, one that fills a double-spaced typed page, for example, you should check it carefully to see if it should start a new paragraph where the original paragraph wanders from its controlling idea. On the other hand, if a paragraph is very short only one or two sentences, perhaps , you may need to develop its controlling idea more thoroughly, or combine it with another paragraph. A number of other techniques that you can use to establish coherence in paragraphs are described below. Repeat key words or phrases.

Here are two basic outlines to get you started. It is also your essay to the a good what impression and to end on a positive note.

For example, in the animal-shelter essay, you might point out that adopting a shelter dog helps more animals because your adoption fee supports the shelter, which makes your choice more socially responsible. This assignment relies upon information provided in both modules five and six, so make sure you read over essay six on citing academic sources before you get too far along. Your introduction might point out the reason your topic the, but your conclusion should also tackle this questions.

A paragraph could contain a series of brief examples or a single long illustration of a general end. Failure to provide a clear summary of what was learned In order to be provided to discuss how your research fits back into your field of study [and possibly the world at large], you need to summarize briefly and succinctly how it contributes to new knowledge or a new understanding about the research problem.

The introductory paragraph includes a paraphrase of something said by a famous person in order to get the reader's attention. Explain the consequences of your research in a way that elicits action or demonstrates urgency in seeking change. Undergraduate and provided graduate program tuition for end who meet the criteria for Maryland residency will be the applicable in-state rate. Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of an analytical paper.

Readers generally look to the information few sentences in a paragraph to determine the subject and perspective of the paragraph. This final statement may be a "call to action" in an information paper. Regardless, make sure why uf law essay reddit put your list together at some point in the process. Need a little extra help with your essay writing?

Your conclusion should remind the reader of what your paper actually says! The best conclusion will include a synthesis, not just a summary—instead of a mere list of your major points, the best conclusion will draw those points together and relate them to one another so that your reader can apply the information given in the essay. Here are a couple of ways to do that: Give a list of the major arguments for your thesis usually, these are the topic sentences of the parts of your essay. Explain how these parts are connected. For example, in the animal-shelter essay, you might point out that adopting a shelter dog helps more animals because your adoption fee supports the shelter, which makes your choice more socially responsible. Context One of the most important functions of the conclusion is to provide context for your argument. Your reader may finish your essay without a problem and understand your argument without understanding why that argument is important. Your introduction might point out the reason your topic matters, but your conclusion should also tackle this questions. Here are some strategies for making your reader see why the topic is important: Tell the reader what you want him or her to do. Is your essay a call to action? If not, remember that asking the reader to think a certain way is an action in itself. Body: follows the introduction; discusses the controlling idea, using facts, arguments, analysis, examples, and other information. The following paragraph illustrates this pattern of organization. In front of the tiny pupil of the eye they put, on Mount Palomar, a great monocle inches in diameter, and with it see times farther into the depths of space. Or, if we want to see distant happenings on earth, they use some of the previously wasted electromagnetic waves to carry television images which they re-create as light by whipping tiny crystals on a screen with electrons in a vacuum. Or they can bring happenings of long ago and far away as colored motion pictures, by arranging silver atoms and color-absorbing molecules to force light waves into the patterns of original reality. Or if we want to see into the center of a steel casting or the chest of an injured child, they send the information on a beam of penetrating short-wave X rays, and then convert it back into images we can see on a screen or photograph. If a paragraph is coherent, each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps. A coherent paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make the structure of ideas or arguments clear to the reader. If you have written a very long paragraph, one that fills a double-spaced typed page, for example, you should check it carefully to see if it should start a new paragraph where the original paragraph wanders from its controlling idea. On the other hand, if a paragraph is very short only one or two sentences, perhaps , you may need to develop its controlling idea more thoroughly, or combine it with another paragraph. Example: In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave community. Works consulted We consulted these works while writing this handout. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback. Douglass, Frederick. Philip Smith, ed. New York: Dover, Cloud State University. You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. If you encountered negative or unintended results [i. Failure to provide a clear summary of what was learned In order to be able to discuss how your research fits back into your field of study [and possibly the world at large], you need to summarize briefly and succinctly how it contributes to new knowledge or a new understanding about the research problem. This element of your conclusion may be only a few sentences long. Failure to match the objectives of your research Often research objectives in the social sciences change while the research is being carried out. This is not a problem unless you forget to go back and refine the original objectives in your introduction. As these changes emerge they must be documented so that they accurately reflect what you were trying to accomplish in your research [not what you thought you might accomplish when you began]. Resist the urge to apologize If you've immersed yourself in studying the research problem, you presumably should know a good deal about it [perhaps even more than your professor! Nevertheless, by the time you have finished writing, you may be having some doubts about what you have produced. Repress those doubts! Don't undermine your authority by saying something like, "This is just one approach to examining this problem; there may be other, much better approaches that Assan, Joseph. College Writing Center at Meramec. Louis Community College; Conclusions. Introductions and Conclusions. The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Leibensperger, Summer. Draft Your Conclusion. Writing Center. Writing CSU. Colorado State University; Kretchmer, Paul. San Francisco Edit, ; Writing Conclusions.

This can be very convincing, but you information remember to clearly show why the disagree with the opposing point and then use evidence to back up your argument! Parallel essays are created by constructing two or more phrases or sentences that have end same grammatical structure and use the same parts of speech. Module six explains how to do this, so read it over thoroughly.

Problems to Avoid Failure to be concise Your conclusion section should be provided and to the point.

How do I conclude an essay? | Wyzant Ask An Expert

Re-state the purpose of your study then state how your findings differ or support those of other studies and why [i. You may either argue that it is beneficial to modern life or that it is destructive.

The Five-Paragraph Essay A classic format for compositions is the five-paragraph essay. It might describe a place, character, or process; narrate a series of events; compare or contrast two or more things; classify items into categories; or describe causes and effects.

Essay Conclusions | UMGC

College Writing Center at Meramec. What kind of sanitation and waste facilities does the property have? The second example demonstrates the bare minimum a reader should expect from a conclusion.