In addition, it will bring about a national unity and identity among Filipinos, as they can now express themselves and communicate with each other in a common language. The Constitution states the National Assembly should endeavor towards developing and formally adopting a common national language to be called Filipino.
Meantime, Pilipino and English remain the official languages unless repealed by law. Filipino is anchoredon Pilipino. Pilipino has borrowed and adopted a lot of words from the Spanish lexicon, Spain being the country's colonizer for over years. These words are carried over to Filipino as Pilipino, as these lexical items have now undergone phonological and morphological processes and appear to be native terms.
The borrowing from Spanish has now somewhat waned. What is prevalent in Filipino today is the rampant borrowing from English. Tabloids, dailies, weeklies, showbiz magazines, even the Cebuano weekly Bisaya are awashed with English words. The academicians as well as the newscasters in radio and television have adopted English words freely and liberally. Filipino Today The evolution of the Wikang Pambansa, now known as Filipino, has not remained uneventful, as one finds out from the its historical perspective in the previous section.
From onwards, to the present s we have seen this language develop, first as Tagalog-based that barely ill-disguised itself as the "national language"--a clear victory of Manuel L. Quezon and the espousal of the tagalistas over the Bisayan hopes of Sotto and his Ang Suga advocates-- then, in acquiring the term "Pilipino"given to it by executive fiat to remove the last vestiges of "tagalogism" and imprint its national character.
In , when the "puristas" purists attempted to enhance the vocabulary through artificial wordsmithing and thereby intensifying the 'word war" with their critics. Then, beginning in the s which saw Pilipino finally being used as medium of instruction at the primary and secondary levels of public and private schools.
Some lexical items given in the Appendix will now be discussed here as representing a type of dominant Filipino written or spoken in: a the academe; b a language journal; c a Cebuano weekly of general circulation; d an article written by a noted Filipino linguists; e a series of TV news broadcasts, and f someMetro Manila daily tabloids.
The choice of sources for these lexical items is rather arbitrary, albeit on firm linguistic ground that the best sources of data are the people themselves --what they speak, what they read, and so on. In this study,Tagalog and Cebuano speakers are taken as a combined language group comprising more than 50 per cent of the Philippine population Atienza, , citing NSO figures with 92 per cent of Filipinos being able to speak the wikang pambansa, thus effectively establishing Filipino as the lingua franca of the country, if not, as the national language itself.
Exhibit A please see Appendix presents some lexical items used by professors of the University of the Philippines in their publications in Filipino on the same topic. These terms are arrayed alongside their English equivalent. Thus, konsiderasyon is "consideration" respelled form , natural is, likewise, "natural" adopted form. The original data of about terms show consistency on the aforementioned forms. Exhibit B, with lexical items sourced from the writings of a distinguished group of Filipino writers, exhibits the same forms --respelled, affixed, or adopted e.
Exhibit C, with lexical items from the highly popular and widely-circulated Cebuano weekly, Bisaya, shows a close congruence of Filipino usage as its staid counterparts above Exhibits A and B. For instance, anowonser for "announcer," ideposito for "to deposit," and tiloring for "tailoring. These items are unabashed borrowing from the English language, such as fyutyur future , vawel vowel , tsok chalk , sabjektiv subjective , and diksyunari dictionary.
Exhibit E is a transcription of terms used in selected, highly-rated TV newscasts in Filipino. Typically, the commentary is fast-paced, accompaniedby live "on the spot" camera footages, with words pouring out in staccato manner, like administrasyon, kovereyj, masaker, trafik apdeyt,insedente, aprobahan, and the like. The respelling of these English equivalent in Filipino is the researcher's alone, consistent with the phonological rules of Philippine languages.
Exhibit F lists lexical terms from the proliferating Metro Manila tabloids written in Filipino and read by the masa, the "man in the street" literally. Familiar words like mentaliti mentality , sektor sector , isyu issue , and abroad abroad. All point ot a heavy and consistent borrowing from the English language.
Why this phenomenon is so will be explained in the next section. Towards a Theory of Filipino What do academicians say about Filipino? Ernesto A. Constantino, a distinguished Filipino linguist says: "Ang pinili naming wika na idedebelop bilang wikang pambansa natin, ang tinawag naming linggwa prangka o Filipino. Atienza describes it as "isang wikang kompromiso, o lingua franca.
On the other hand, Alegre expresses that "contemporary Manila Tagalog is the basis of Filipino. Is the Tagalog-based Pilipino really Filipino? Constantino cites the differences between Pilipino and Filipino, to wit: Filipino 1 has more phonemes; 2 has a different system of ortography; 3 manifests a heavy borrowing from English; 4 has a different grammatical construction.
Based on the trend of development of Filipino as manifested in the data presented in this study, as well as the actual usage by the linguistic trendsetters in Philippine society --newscasters both in radio and television , Filipino writers and some academicians, showbiz personalities--it would appear that his theory is closest to reality.
There is a consensus, however, among the academicians above that Filipino is the lingua franca in MetroManila which is inexorably pervading the regional centers through the print and broadcast media, through the songs that the local bands sing, through intellectual discussions among academicians, etc.
It is the language through which a prominent Filipino linguistcommunicates Exhibit D , as well as the medium of expression among academicians Exhibit A , and of the "caretakers" or "authority" of national language development in the University of the Philippines System, namely, the writers and editors in the Sentro ng Wikang Filipino Exhibit B.
Even the leading Cebuano weekly, Bisaya which has been around for the past 68 years has now printed in its pages loan words from English which, more often than not, retain their original spelling despite their being subjected to the Cebuano rules of grammar. One can safely say that Cebuano, like Tagalog, is undergoing linguistic change through lexical borrowing from English. Right now the Cebuanos adopt two alternate forms --the original spelling and the modified. Soon only one form will be retained, by theory of simplification as embodied in the universals of language.
At the moment, it is very clear that English borrowing has a dominant and pervading influence in the shaping of the lingua franca which is the penultimate form of Filipino, the national language. But will this trend continue? Language is dynamic. This researcher is of the opinion that as long as English remains the official language of commerce, science,and technology the trend will continue.
Unfortunately, there isn't much borrowing from other Philippine languages. Maceda introduces some Cebuano words and phrases in her discourse.
So natural was the insertion, the reader can contextualize the meaning. Atienza, in the same book included in his text "pakikipag- lakipan," the rootword of which, "lakip", is also found in the Cebuano lexicon. Outlining and Topic Sentences Before beginning any type of writing, creating an outline is key. Write down the main points that you wish to discuss in the paragraph first.
Aim for two or three main points. Underneath each main point, add a piece of supporting evidence from a journal, novel, poem, etc. After the evidence, offer a brief explanation. Once you have put all of this information together, return to the topic sentence.
The topic sentence should serve as a mini guide to the rest of your paragraph. Support, Evidence and Analysis The heart of the paragraph is the evidence used to prove the point. For example, a piece of support in an essay about drug usage could read, "Drug usage is becoming an increasing problem in the United States. Once you have cited the statistic, include a piece of analysis that explains why and how this rise is detrimental to the country and to the future.
Paragraph Strength and Language To craft a strong paragraph, important facts, textual analysis and all of the information must be relevant. In an essay on the importance of gun control, going off on a tangent about other types of weapons could be detrimentally off topic.
Some lexical items given in the Appendix will now be discussed here as representing a type of dominant Filipino written or spoken in: a the academe; b a language journal; c a Cebuano weekly of general circulation; d an article written by a noted Filipino linguists; e a series of TV news broadcasts, and f someMetro Manila daily tabloids. And this is manifested in the perceived convergence of Pilipino and Cebuano through their respective borrowings from English. Support, Evidence and Analysis The heart of the paragraph is the evidence used to prove the point.