She speaks as if the reader is the one being called after. The reader is entranced in her short poem filled with imagery to set the mood; the dire, last goodbye that seemed to separate the two forever. The poet's love for this person was also shown in her other works, and has made it very clear that …show more content… "When I go away from you" Line 1.
Not only is the narrator set, but the reader is also made the subject. This first line indicates that the narrator is leaving by choice rather than being forced away. It is as if it was meant to be, or both the reader and narrator agreed upon this separation. Is it a permanent goodbye? Today: Though women still struggle for many equal rights, such as equal pay for jobs that still pay higher wages to men, women have made significant progress in achieving equality. Today: Although the imagist movement in poetry has passed, free verse is still a popular form of poetry in the United States.
The primary means of transcontinental travel is by train, which takes several days. Trips across the ocean are made on ships.
Today: Technology has greatly increased people's ability to stay in contact with loved ones who are far away. Mobile phones enable not only affordable long-distance conversations but also text messaging and emailing. Coast to coast air travel in the United States takes only five hours; flights to Europe take just a few hours more. Doolittle's first poems were published in the magazine Poetry in Although known in Europe, Doolittle's work did not receive much attention in the United States until Lowell promoted Doolittle's poems there.
Although known as one of the great imagist poets, Doolittle broke away from the movement after World War II. The years that followed were some of her most creative. She died from complications from a stroke on September 21, In her lifetime, Doolittle published several collections of poetry and four novels.
Women's Rights in the Early Twentieth Century The image of the genteel female who stayed home and raised children and had little if any civil rights was beginning to change at the turn of the twentieth century. More women's voices were being heard in literature and in politics.
In , women formed the National Women's Trade Union League, which advocated improved working conditions and wages. A decade later, the National Women's Party was formed to apply pressure on the U. Congress to give women the right to vote. During this time, World War I broke out and women assumed working positions that men who had joined the military had held. This provided women with a taste of what it was like to hold down a job outside the home and to earn a decent salary.
This opportunity also demonstrated that women were capable workers. After the war ended, women won the right to vote with the passing of the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution in Her experiments with free verse, which contained neither rhyme nor meter, were largely misunderstood by many critics and therefore ridiculed for their supposed lack of form. In a article for the Washington Post, Edward Hirsch suggests that Lowell's "poetry has been underestimated for most of the past 75 years.
Hirsch, unlike many of Lowell's contemporaries, commends Lowell for "her exuberant work in free verse. William Lyon Phelps, writing for the New York Times during the time that the poet was still alive, also pointed out that many critics mocked Lowell's poetry. Phelps, though he admits he does not appreciate all of Lowell's work, says he especially admires her more traditional poetry, which he refers to as "beautiful and original.
O'Conor writes that Lowell "also possessed a nature remarkably sensitive to impression, the true inheritance of a poet. O'Conor does praise Lowell's collection Sword Blades and Poppy Seed, in which "The Taxi" was published, but the critic's positive review is based mostly on the more conventional poems in that collection.
The critic concludes this review with a positive comment: Her [Lowell's] enthusiasm and courage in upholding her artistic beliefs have done much to win respect for the profession of poetry, and her influence upon individual poets, even upon those who have never adopted the innovations in form which she has made familiar, has been noteworthy.
Vindicated by time, Lowell's poetry is now widely celebrated and studied. In this essay, she examines the "organic rhythm" Lowell employs in "The Taxi.
This form was based on regimented patterns of rhyme and cadence, or rhythm. Words at the ends of lines often rhymed with one another. Lines were written in uniform patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables.
The rhythm of most traditional poetry was regular—could be heard like a systematic tapping of a pencil on the top of a table.
Many poems were based on an iambic meter, in which one unstressed syllable was followed by one stressed syllable, over and over again. Most common was iambic pentameter, or five iambic feet units that contain one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable. The rhythm would sound something like the following: ta-dum, ta-dum, ta-dum, ta-dum, ta-dum. Such formal meters became so closely associated with poetry that any poem that did not follow such conventions was criticized for not being any different from regular prose.
Unrhymed and loosely metered forms were definitely not poetry, according to these literary critics. Lowell did not buy this assessment, and she was not alone. She was not the first to write poetry without rhyme and regular rhythm. She states that despite the criticism she received, she believed herself to be a poet, a craftsman who studied poetry and invested much effort and discipline into her art.
She understood the traditional poetic form, but she did not always feel that her sense of poetry fit into the confines of rhymed and strictly measured meter. So Lowell was attracted to a different and more radical for her time poetic form, what the French called vers libre , or free verse.
Though rhyme and regular meter were not necessarily present in poems written in the form of vers libre, other poetic devices, such as images and metaphors, were. Amy Lowell: Selected Poems is a relatively new collection of Lowell's life work, offering the reader an overview of the poet's development. This collection was edited by Honor Moore. Some critics have found these poems to be some of Lowell's best.
Lawrence titled The Letters of D. Lawrence and Amy Lowell, This book offers an intimate glimpse into both the personal and professional sides of Lowell. Lawrence was both a supporter and a critic of Lowell's poetry, and these letters demonstrate how he played out both of these roles.
Imagist poet Hilda Doolittle , who was better known as H. Lowell greatly admired her work. Another well-known imagist poet was Richard Aldington Aldington was born in England and was married to H.
He is remembered for his writing about his experiences in World War I. Aldington's Images of War , a collection of poetry, and his novel Death of a Hero are two of his more well-known works. Ezra Pound was an American poet who was greatly responsible for creating the imagist movement.
Pound's most famous imagist poem is "In a Station of the Metro," which can be found in the collection Modern American Poetry, An Anthology, edited by Louis Untermeyer and reprinted in Moreover, meter is often present in such poems; it is just irregular.
The meter in free verse forms can be tapped out with a pencil, for example, but the beat might change from line to line, depending on the emotional content of the phrase the poem is focused on.
In the preface to Sword Blades and Poppy Seed, Lowell refers to the meter of her poetry as unrhymed cadence. She explains that unrhymed cadence is not the same thing as the rhythm that might be present in a piece of prose, which is even more loose. She does, however, claim that the "organic rhythm" upon which she builds her poetry is drawn from the more natural rhythms of the spoken word.
In other words, the rhythm is based on the words chosen, the meaning of the words, and the emotions behind them. Pauses, as signified by punctuation and breaks in the poem's lines, also help to create the rhythm and are similar to the pauses the speaker would make to take a breath.
These pauses also add drama to the poem, as the emotion builds, the poet states, "until it burns white-hot. The same happens in lines 3 and 4. Line 2 changes this pattern. Line 2 has four beats and an iambic rhythm that sounds like ta-dum, ta-dum. This ever-so-slight change in rhythm between the second line and its other three companions makes the second line stand out.
The second line is not only the shortest line of the first four, it is also the most dramatic. Its brevity and its subtle change in rhythm also provide the first hint of emotion. This beat that the speaker refers to is akin to the beat of the heart, a suggestion reinforced by the iambic rhythm of this line, which mimics the rhythm of a heartbeat.
Without this beat, the world appears dead. Though the change in cadence is subtle in the second line, the poet has purposefully composed it to be different from what comes before and after it.
The break from iambic meter in line 3 suggests the end of the heartbeat. The pause at the end of line 2 is also purposeful. By pausing there, the last word of the second line receives more attention. The world appears dead. The speaker feels dead. Lowell wants to make sure that the reader not only understands this but also feels this.
So she uses both rhythm and pause to grab the reader's attention. Lines 6 and 7 provide another example of how Lowell uses organic rhythm. Line 6 could be read with an emphasis on the first syllable, followed by two unstressed syllables and ending with a stressed syllable.
So the rhythm is dum, ta-ta dum. The rhythm in line 7 is related to the rhythm in line 6, but it also differs slightly. In line seven, the rhythm could be read as dum, ta-ta-ta dum-ta. Note that both of these lines are very short, with four beats in line 6 and six in line 7. These short lines imply speed. The quickness of the beats reflects the tempo that the speaker feels as the taxi races down the streets, pulling her away from her lover.
As the speed of the beat increases, so too does the intensity of the speaker's emotions. The distance between the speaker and her lover increases and builds a more powerful wedge between them. There is a sense that things are happening so quickly that the speaker has no power to stop them. Also note that the poet has used only three words in line 6. She could have used the article "the" to start off the line and the verb "are," thus creating a complete sentence: "The streets are coming fast.
By using only the three words, the line begins with a stressed sound. This increases the sense of urgency. If she had used the complete sentence, with the extra article and verb, the rhythm would have been the more monotonous, less emotional iambic rhythm.
The last line offers another example of how the poet uses organic rhythm. The line begins with an unstressed syllable and continues in a rocking motion of iambic meter until it comes to the most important words in this line. There the rhythm dramatically changes. With the word "edges," it becomes trochaic, consisting of a stressed followed by an unstressed syllable.
This rhythm is aggressive, almost suggesting a stabbing motion, thus dramatizing the final image of the poem. It raises the heat of emotion.
The speaker does not want to ever leave her lover again because leaving her lover is like inflicting an injury on herself. Lowell has used the organic rhythm of the words themselves to create an emotional sensation in the reader. The cadence of this final line enacts the last image, which is then indelibly impressed upon the reader's mind.
Carl E. Rollyson Jr. In the following excerpt, Rollyson addresses Lowell's relationship with Ada Russell, who was the inspiration for the poem "The Taxi. Her two-volume biography of John Keats , published in the last year of her life, had been greeted in this country with almost universal acclaim. She was the premier platform performer among her generation of poets. She had remained in the public eye ever since the publication of her second book, Sword Blades and Poppy Seed She had wrested the Imagist movement away from Ezra Pound, producing three best-selling anthologies of Imagist verse while publishing a book of her own poetry nearly every year.
Pound retaliated, calling her appropriation "Amygism. She lived on the family estate in Brookline, Massachusetts, where her seven rambunctious sheep dogs terrorized her guests. She wore a pince nez that made her Iook—so one biographer thought—like Theodore Roosevelt. She was even known to say "Bully! Pound wanted her monetary support but scorned her verse.
I move a foot, and the planes of light in the water jar. Reading this dithyramb to the Poetry Society of America, Lowell caused an uproar. This was not poetry at all, the conservative membership protested. Another account of this episode mentions titters, as Society members envisioned the elephantine poet at her ablutions—or rather her profanation of what a dignified poet ought to perform.
Lowell went on lecture tours the way rock bands roll from town to town today, with an entourage, a suite at the best hotel, and a gathering of reporters awaiting her latest outrage.
On the lecture platform, she would read a poem and then pause, looking out at her audience: "Well, hiss or applaud! But do something! At receptions and dinner parties, she was carefully watched. When would she light up? She seldom disappointed, although her favored stogie was, in fact, a small brown panatela. Other women poets—chiefly Elinor Wylie and Edna St. Vincent Millay—also commanded press attention, but none had Amy Lowell's authority.
Publishers deferred to her contractual terms. Lawrence, Richard Aldington, H. She was Poetry, Inc. Today she would be, of course, Poetry. Eliot called her the "demon saleswoman" of modern poetry.
Academic critics such as John Livingston Lowes deemed her one of the masters of the sensuous image in English poetry. Of course, Lowell had her detractors, but their views were rarely reflected in reviews of her books. As Norman Mailer said of Marilyn Monroe —Lowell had crashed through a publicity barrier, which meant that no matter what kind of press she got, it all accrued to her benefit.
Although she came from a wealthy and staunchly capitalist family and called herself "the last of the barons," it was not her politics but her poetics that captured the public imagination. She was for free verse, or what she called "cadenced verse. Lowell was all surface, her grumbling dissenters alleged, but she always seemed to carry the day by switching modes—from grand historical narratives, to hokkus, to lyrics, to polyphonic prose, to books about contemporary poetry that read as though she had just left the lecture platform to address you, the common reader.
It is not surprising, then, that her enemies—never able to get much traction during her lifetime—should pounce just as soon as the energetic Lowell dropped dead from a stroke. The urge to cut this incubus down to size was irresistible. Clement Wood, a poet and critic who had feuded with Lowell, was first up in , producing a biography systematically dismantling Lowell's reputation as a poet and critic. Lowell had been prolific and prolix, producing in a fifteen-year span an immense and uneven variety of verse and prose that made her an easy target for tendentious criticism.
Wood's verdict, in short, was that Lowell was no poet at all. He skirted her lesbianism with references to the "Sapphic fragments" of a "singer of Lesbos. Lowell's need was pathological, Wood implied, because of her obesity—a word he never used, referring instead to her "immense physique. Lowell's next biographer, S.
Foster Damon, produced a monumental biography in , noting that Wood's snide attack had not been widely reviewed or credited, but the damage had been done—in part because Wood had played off the epithets of critics like Witter Bynner, who had dubbed Lowell the "hippopoetess," a term Ezra Pound also took up as a way of conflating the person with the poet. Damon, a member of Lowell's inner circle, restored her dignity by detailing her heroic dedication to her writing and to the cause of poetry, but he also unwittingly played Wood's hand by emphasizing the "triumph of the spirit over the tragedy of the body.
Damon meant his words as a tribute, but because he did not tell the complete story of Lowell's love life and her working days, he could not recover for readers the Amy Lowell he knew. Damon's plight raises two issues that plague Lowell biography. Lowell's lover and constant companion, Ada Dwyer Russell, destroyed their letters at Lowell's request. As unfortunate was Lowell's directive to her secretaries that they destroy the drafts of her work each day.
Damon could have partly rectified this enormous loss had he candidly described the intimacy between "Peter" Lowell's nickname for Ada and the poet. But Russell, who had worked closely with the poet, was also Lowell's executor. Russell lived until , resisting all requests to tell the story of her relationship with Lowell, and thus depriving readers not merely of a love story but of an insight into the poetic process.
Employing Wood's vulgar Freudianism, Gregory sketched a view of a masculinized woman who used her bulk as a defense against a hurtful world. Gregory seemed to have no idea that Russell and Lowell had been lovers, although the evidence was rather plain to see, eventually emerging in Jean Gould's Amy: The World of Amy Lowell and the Imagist Movement Relying on critics such as Glenn Richard Ruilhy, who published in an edition of Lowell's poetry that emphasized her stunning love poetry, as well as on fresh interviews with Lowell's surviving family and friends, Gould began the work of restoring the person and poet to her full humanity and range ….
Source: Carl E. Many people have taken Woolf's statement at face value, leading to the persistence of what you might call the creationist theory of Modernism. And Eliot said, "Let there be a general sense of displacement and alienation": and there was a general sense of displacement and alienation. As many critics have noted, this can be a deeply unsatisfying way of looking at early twentieth-century poetry—for one thing, it tends to overstate the importance of minor but "modern" looking poets like H.
If human character really changed in , someone would seem to have forgotten to tell quite a few humans about it. It's useful, then, to remember that "Modernism" was at least as much a convergence of period styles as a literary revolution. Nothing illustrates this fact quite as decisively as the poetry of Amy Lowell. Lowell, who died in , was an enthusiastic modernist, a talented literary impresario, and an unremarkable poet in the Poundian imagiste mode—which is just another way of saying that most of her poems look like this: Then I see you, Standing under a spire of pale blue larkspur, With a basket of roses on your arm.
You are cool, like silver, And you smile. Of course, the above also looks a lot like this: Through the upland meadows For I dreamed of someone last night Who is waiting for me. Which in turn could easily be mistaken for this: Frail beauty, green, gold and incandescent whiteness, narcissi, daffodils, you have brought me Spring and longing, wistfulness, in your irradiance.
Flint third sounded like a Chinese translation. Viva la revolucion! Honor Moore, the editor of this volume, argues that Lowell's achievement is best seen not in her earliest poetry, but in "the erotic lyrics she wrote to the woman with whom she lived the final twelve years of her life.
Yet even Lowell's strongest poems in this vein remain far less interesting than Virginia Woolf's correspondence with Vita Sackville-West , to say nothing of Woolf's Orlando: A Biography.
But then, how could it be otherwise? Virginia Woolf was a genius; Amy Lowell was only a modernist …. Diane Ellen Hamer In the following excerpt, Hamer discusses Lowell's use of polyphonic prose, spare images, and free verse.
All told, Lowell wrote nine books of poetry and four books of prose, and edited several anthologies, in the twelve years from age 39 to her death of a stroke at Some of the poetry is exquisite and timeless, some is dreadful and forgettable. Lowell usually wrote in free verse—vers libre, as she called it. Her body of work is sufficiently large that most readers will find something of interest, what with subjects ranging from history, war and the Far East to lesbian love, gardens, and everyday life activities.
She was first educated at home and later at private schools reserved for upper-class girls. She was largely self-educated, though, as she didn't do well in the confines of the classroom. She was a smart, sensitive tomboy caught in a social class and a larger culture that made it very hard for her to find herself.
In time she would come to be regarded, quite incorrectly, as a lonely old maid. Her letters and her friends' reminiscences show that she had crushes on girls and women from an early age, and that she understood on some level that making a life with another woman was not socially acceptable.
No truer words have ever been spoken when it comes to relationships between man and woman. For when a man and a woman come together for a relationship it should be for the right reason, and that reason is love. Love is much more than just a word though, it is a feeling and emotion that cannot be duplicated, imitated, or simulated As a veteran filmmaker and self professed cinephile Scorsese must understand that the Western is the oldest Hollywood genre which, like all genres, is defined according to specific motifs, iconography, conventions and themes Mast, In fact, by deliberately invoking the codes and conventions of the Western to underpin Taxi Driver , he demonstrates his virtuosic mastery of the genre Taxi Essay example - Before other forms of the eruption of other transportation networking systems, the taxi was the number one ride-hailing service.
It was the initial motor vehicle used to convey passengers between the locations of their choice. That is until Uber came along. I chose the topic of Uber vs. Taxi because due to the fact that cars are the most used and favored mode of transportation, I wanted to compare the original use of taxis to the expansion of normal people being able to use their car to make some cas I was putting on the last finishing touches of my make up on when the phone rang.A London Thoroughfare. They have watered the street, It shines in the glare of lamps, Cold, white lamps, And lies Like a slow-moving river, Barred with silver and black. Cabs go down it, One, And then another, Between them I hear the shuffling of feet. Tramps doze on the window-ledges, Night-walkers pass along the sidewalks. The city is squalid and sinister, With the silver-barred street in the midst, Slow-moving, A river leading nowhere.
Sentimental language was rejected, as was the use of excessive wordage.